23/09/2021

REPAIR: Embedded DisplayPort (eDP) LCD Driver

As luck would have it another item was added to my repair que. This time it was my somewhat "sentimental" secondary monitor, which is basically a recycled ThinkPad X260 display

I really loved this thing as it let me have a 1.5 monitor setup, which was super useful for running Altium. So I knew I had to get it repaired ASAP


Identifying the root cause did not take too long. It turned out that the ACDC adapter failed and managed to feed way more than 12V into the eDP driver board, which eventually fried the 12V to 5V switching regulator. Interestingly all this happened over 3 days, as on the first day I noticed a strange smell in the house but could not pin point it's location, on the second day I noticed the screen flickering, and on the third the screen flashed moments before a bunch of magic smoke was released from the eDP driver D:


The 5V regulator and it's footprint was way beyond salvaging, like the FR4 underneath was charred enough to bulge up. So I cleaned up the pads the best I could, measured the typical current draw on the 5V rail, and finally replaced the section altogether with an adequately rated 5V regulator I had lying around. Also I decided to leave the bulk capacitors and feed in the 5V via original inductor to lower the ripple voltage and current


Other Info

The following might be useful to someone:

  • FC3D6T was the faulty 5V, this is a SOT23-6 package
  • 5V rail drew
    • ~350mA when monitor was ON
    • ~23mA when monitor was OFF
  • 12V rail drew
    • ~210mA when monitor was ON
    • ~12mA when monitor was OFF
  • eDP driver is RTD2556_eDP_WS_R10.1 which also goes by
    • B116XAN02
    • M125NWR3
    • LP133WH1-SPB1
    • LP140WH2-TP
    • N156BGE-EA1
    • M06VH00WX2P33Y00001
    • S20180122-1

13/09/2021

REPAIR: Neato D5 LIDAR Motor

A month or so ago our beloved Neato D5 was starting to have sensor issues, as it would either stop vacuuming midway or only after a couple of minutes. So I reached out to Australia Robotic who said that the LIDAR motor was the likely culprit, and were trusting enough to send a replacement for me to fit :D

Disassembling the unit was quite simple, with the only tricky part being the front bumper (which you have to bend quite a bit to remove/place back on)

With everything apart I was able to have a good look at the LIDAR, which turned out to be a pretty neato ;^) assembly. But before I tell you why, here is a good picture which explains how a 2D LIDAR functions


OK so the laser bounces off an object and the reflected light is picked up by the image sensor, simple enough right? Well, above only tells you what's in front. What if we want to know what's happening all around us? To do this you would need to continuously rotate the LIDAR assembly... BUT wires can't rotate indefinitely, so how do we get power in and data out ?_?

The Neato D5 LIDAR solves this by going wireless:

  • Power is bought in via wireless power transfer, likely inductive coupling
  • Data is taken out via an IR emitter/reciever combo

05/09/2021

PROJECT: Japanese Wood Joinery & Kitchen Shelves

Before COVID steamrolled the whole planet, the wife was planning to take a Japanese wood joinery class at a local university. After that plan fell through she found out that the class teacher/sensei offered similar content in an online format, DIY Japanese Joinery Online Video Courses

So we decided to sign up to the class to see if we could incorporate these new techniques to our woodworking projects. I will admit that I was quite hesitant at first as I tend to be quite lazy/efficient with my work; as in, if two pieces of wood can just be fixed together with glue/screws then I don't see the point of using fancy joints. BUT after spending a good month getting familiar with the new tools (as well as the countless weekends slowly sharpening each one) we finally applied what we learned and made a kitchen shelf; and I have to admit that seeing something so modular come together was 100% good vibes for me. So should be fun to figure out other ways we could use these joints ;^)

Anyway, before cutting all the wood I modeled the assembly in SOLIDWORKS, as my monkey brain has trouble with "complex" assemblies. So here is how that looked (ignore the poorly fitted dovetail joints, here I was too lazy to make separate parts):

And here is how the result came out :D

29/08/2021

PROJECT: Half-Life 2 AR2, Update #13 - Solenoid Driver


Continuing with the RECEIVER_MAIN-BOARD design, this post will concentrate on the solenoid driver section. The solenoid in question is one I wound myself, whos approximate specs are:

  • 0.95 mH inductance
  • 1.42 Ω series resistance
  • 21 AWG wire (0.7mm dia)
  • 40m wire length

Why is this section so crucial? Well this circuit deals with driving a highly inductive load, which creates big voltage kicks/transients during the ON/OFF transitions. Dave from EEVblog made a good summary of this behavior here


Chosen Solenoid Driver Configuration

Before I bore you with more simulations, here is how the chosen configuration compares to driving the solenoid without any dampening/snubbing. Please note that the MOSFET I have chosen (Infineon BSC040N10NS5ATMA1) has a Vds rating of 100 V, which if exceeded will eventually destroy the semiconductor junction (as you see in the simulation with the 110 V peak...)

One other thing to note is that I have chosen to use a dedicated gate driver (TI UCC27533, see section 10.2.1.2.4 of datasheet on how to spec driver), as I am am working with a limited PCB area (as in have bugger all space to make a gate driver using discrete components)


A Closer Look at the Voltage Spike

There are many ways to dampen the back EMF (aka voltage spike), the most simple of which is just placing a diode across the inductor. This diode goes by many names, and the one I was taught at uni was freewheeling diode. It's recommended to use a Schottky diode, due to their lower forward voltage (think less dissipated power) and snappy response to reverse bias

Lastly my gate drive waveform is a 7 Hz square wave with a 50 % duty cycle (as in the inductor is energized for ~70 ms). Which is practically what the solenoid will be driven at, as seen in an older blog post 


Zooming in on the voltage spike we see that it "saturates" at ~110 V. This is because the junction of the MOSFET (which is rated to 100 Vds) is breaking down and clipping the peak. Using an ideal MOSFET in LTspice shows that the spike peaks at ~2 kV and lasts for ~1 ns


And with the freewheeling Schottky diode fitted, we get a manageable ~15 V peak


But What if I Want a Faster OFF Time?

Here is a good thread on this desire ;^)

If you have eagle eyes you might see that there is a bit of a delay before MOSFET Vds (and hence inductor current) stabilizes, and in some scenarios you would want this state to be reached as fast as possible so you can switch the inductor at crazy high speeds. Well if you want to do this one way is to add a dampening resistor in series with the freewheeling diode, but you have to size this resistor carefully otherwise the voltage drop across it is going to bring the spike back (as you can see below)


An even better way would be to use a Schottky & Zener diode combination, which I did not simulate as I was quite happy with the Schottky freewheeling diode arrangement (as I am only switching at 7 Hz...)

21/08/2021

PROJECT: Half-Life 2 AR2, Update #12 - Power Filter 10A


So today I am going to expand on my previous pi-filter topology to make it compatible with the solenoid driver. The same driver that is going to be dealing with ~7 Hz 10 A transients ;^)


Chosen Pi-Filter Configuration

As before, here is the step and frequency response of the chosen pi-filter configuration. Since I am dealing with a higher transient current, I am trying to minimize things like:

  • Settling time
  • Over/under-shoot
  • Frequency of ringing (think radiated EMI)

If you are confused about some of the above terms then have a look at the next section


Summary of Ferrite Beads

With the previous lot of simulations I was quite happy with the electrolytic & ceramic capacitor arrangement (which turned out to be ideal for this case as well), so this time I dived deeper into the impacts of ferrite bead impedance

The step response was configured to peak at 10 A, which is the peak current of the solenoid I wound. As I began simulating stuff I noticed that such a large current spike lead to noticeable over/under-shoot & ringing, hence I evaluated each ferrite with this in mind


Rather than flood yous with pictures of different ferrite bead simulations, this time I decided to summarize the data in a nice table:

Note how the NO FILTER response:

  1. Has a rather "late" -3 dB roll-off frequency, ~3,500 kHz vs ~160 kHz for others
  2. Manages to amplify any transients in the ~30 kHz to ~3.2 MHz range
  3. Has a step response that oscillates at ~2.2 MHz (think radiated EMI)

At the same time, now how using a higher impedance ferrite bead (48-115 Ω @ 100 MHz) leads to:

  1. Amplification of any transients in the ~15 kHz to ~150 kHz range
  2. An increase in settling time
  3. An increase in over/under-shoot

In my opinion the 10 Ω @ 100 MHz ferrite bead (Wurth 74279221100) gives the best performance of the lot. With the most noticeable/worthy feature being no amplifiaction of transients from 1 Hz all the way to 100 GHz :D


Closer Look at 115 R Ferrite Bead

For the sake of completeness, here is how the largest impedance ferrite bead (Liard 28F0181-1SR-10, 115 Ω @ 100 MHz) looks

10/07/2021

PROJECT: Half-Life 2 AR2, Update #11 - Receiver Sensor PCBA's


"Quick" update, I have just finished designing the left & right reciever sensor PCBA's (the ones that figure out position of solenoid plunger/firing pin). Next step was to place them into the AR2 assembly to check for possible collisions (see first section), and to see how well the IR LED & IR sensor pair are expected to function (see second section)


PCBA & Solenoid Plunger Collision


From my AR2 prototype I noticed that the solenoid plunger (pink thing below) has quite a bit of slop, and at the extreme case can move around by ~1mm


The components that are of most concern are the electrolytic capacitors (Nichicon UCQ1E100MCL1GB), as these are the highest items on the PCBA (coming in at a whooping 4.6mm). Below I found that on the IR sensor PCBA was heading for a collision, so I had to move the electrolytic capacitor (on both PCBA and AR2 assembly) as far down as I possibly could


IR LED & IR Sensor Viewing Angle

As mentioned in a previous post, I am using two IR LED & IR sensor pairs (in a line of sight arrangement) to figure out the location of the solenoid plunger


Doing a quick test with my selected LED (Stanley Electric VTAN1116P-TR) I saw that the 40° viewing angle should not be an issue, as at no point can a single IR sensor see light from both IR LEDs (think viewing angle cones having too much overlap)


However if you increase the IR LED viewing angle to 60° (SunLED XZTNI53W-8) you will have issues with loading configuration D and possibly E, as here the viewing angle cones overlap too much and so can confuse the IR sensors


But wait there is more! If you have a closer look at the datasheet for 40° viewing angle IR LED (Stanley Electric VTAN1116P-TR), you will see that: 

  • At 40° the LED has a 50% relative intensity
  • At 140° the LED has a 20% relative intensity

Meaning I am likely to run into the overlap issue with configuration D, as the IR sensor will probably pickup the stray IR light. I won't know if this is a problem till I build the reciever assembly, but if it is then I could either:
  1. Narrow the viewing angle of IR LED by making a cylindrical cover
  2. Read the analog voltage of the IR sensor (via ADC or comparator) and then trigger on a set threshold


To finish off... Believe it or not but the IR sensor (WE 1540601NEA200) also has a viewing angle, which is 120°. Luckily with the IR LED & IR sensor PCBA configuration (not angle between the two boards) should not have any issues

22/06/2021

PROJECT: RCA TV Adapter for Record Player

Recently my significant other got a record player (SONY PS-LX250H) to play her childhood records. However there was one minor issue, we did not have any speakers that supported the relatively old-school RCA audio connector

Well as luck would have it, our TV (Samsung UA50J5100) has an RCA input. But again there was a catch, the TV expects to see a video signal before it gives access to the speakers. So a new project was born, a box that generates a "fake" RCA video signal to trick the TV into sharing it's onboard speakers 

To achieve all this I used the super nifty TVout library along with an Arduino Nano, which I also programmed to display 4 different items (controlled by two switches):

  1. Blank screen
  2. Pictures of our cat =^..^=
  3. Pictures of us ;^)
  4. Conway's Game of Life (which I got from Emily Velasco)

With all that said, here is how the box looks as well as the "pixel art" it produces:


3D Printing Text

Now for some advice on 3D printing text. I find that using an "equal width font" works best, for example when I design items with text in SOLIDWORKS here is what I use:

  • Arial Rounded MT (bold)
  • At least 5mm high
  • 110% spacing


Basically the taller/higher the font, the better it will come out. Also if you are dealing with smaller/shorter font (≤5mm) then it's worthwhile removing any "islands" to improve readability (think difficulties when printing smaller features). For example, with above I had to clean up A, B, O, & P to get a nice print


Finally, to make the text stand out I debossed it by 1.5mm and then filled the cavity with nail polish. The trick here is to use a fine-tip flat-head screwdriver to dab the nail polish into each cavity, then wait for the nail polish to dry before cleaning up the edges with an IPA soaked cotton swab

UPDATE: If you want to stop the inter-layer/capillary action bleed then add a coat of clear spray, as this fills in the micro-grooves - ubermeisters